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Recurrent Aphthous Ulcers ppt

| April 26, 2011 | 0 Comments

Recurrent Aphthous Ulcers | ppt

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Definition

Recurrent aphthous ulcers are among the most common oral mucosal lesions, with a prevalence of 10–30% in the general population.

Etiology

The cause remains unclear. Recent evidence supports the concept that cell-mediated immune responses play a primary role in the pathogenesis. Several predisposing factors have been reported, such as trauma, allergy, genetic predisposition, endocrine disturbances, emotional stress, hematological deficiencies, and AIDS.

Recurrent Aphthous Ulcers1 Recurrent Aphthous Ulcers ppt

Minor aphthous ulcer.
Recurrent Aphthous Ulcers2 Recurrent Aphthous Ulcers ppt

Major aphthous ulcer on the lower lip.
Recurrent Aphthous Ulcers3 Recurrent Aphthous Ulcers ppt

Major aphthous ulcer, necrotic, on the lower lip
Recurrent Aphthous Ulcers4 Recurrent Aphthous Ulcers ppt

Multiple herpetiform ulcers on the tongue.

Clinical features

•Three clinical variations have been recognized: minor, major and herpetiform ulcers.

•Minor aphthae are the most common form, and they present clinically as small, painful, round ulcers 3–6 m m in diameter, covered by a whitish-yellow membrane and surrounded by a thin red halo (Fig.).

•The lesions may be single or multiple (two to six), and they heal without scarring in 7–12 days.

•The major form is characterized by deep painful ulcers, 1–2 cmin diameter, that persist for 3–6 weeks and may cause scarring (Figs.).

•The number of lesions varies fromone to five.

•The herpetiformvariation is characterized by small, painful, shallow ulcers, 1–2 mm in diameter, with a tendency to coalesce into larger irregular ulcers (Fig.).

•Characteristically, the lesions are multiple (10–100), persist for one or two weeks, and heal without scarring.

•The non-keratinized movable mucosa is most frequently affected in all three clinical variations of the disease.

•The diagnosis of aphthous ulcers is exclusively based on clinical criteria.

Differential diagnosis

•Herpes simplex,

•hand-foot-and mouth disease,

•chancre,

•Behçet disease,

•cyclic neutropenia,

erythema multiforme,

•FAPA syndrome,

•Sweet syndrome.

Treatment

•Topical steroids. In severe cases, intralesional steroid injection or systemic steroids in low doses (10–20 mg prednisone) for four to eight days can reduce the symptoms dramatically.

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